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Kamis, 22 Mei 2014

How to do CPR in Infants and Children

Cardiac arrest among infants and children is rarely caused by heart problems. It is often caused by oxygen deprivation due to injuries, suffocation, smoke inhalation, infection, or the so- called sudden – infant – death syndrome (SIDS).
In an emergency situation like cardiac arrest, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR can be a key to an infant’s or a child’s survival.
Before CPR is started, one should first establish if indeed the child is not responding or not breathing.ck for the following:
  • Absence of pulse
  • Absence of chest movement
  • Absence of audible heart sounds
  • Blue (cyanosis) or pale skin
  • Gasps, muscular contractions, and seizures – like convulsive activity
An infant or child with difficulty of breathing but not cyanotic (bluish in color)
Indicates having adequate airway and does not need CPR but should immediately brought to the nearest hospital for observation and proper support.
Check and Open the Airway
Check if any solid foreign objects or liquids like vomit or blood clots are blocking the airways.
Quickly wipe the fluid with your index and middle finger wrapped in cloth. The tongue may also fall back and block the airway when the victim is unconscious. This is the most common cause of airway obstruction.
Perform the standard head- tilt/ chin lift technique when checking the airway. Just be careful and apply a slight tilt. Tilting the head slightly may injure the neck or kick the trachea and close the airway.
Check for Breathing
If the child gasps or struggles to catch his breath after the airway is opened, let  him breathe on his own. If his lips are bluish, it means he is not getting adequate oxygen and must be taken to the hospital fast.
If child is not breathing, begin ventilation by giving two gentle breaths at one to 1.5 seconds per breaths. Force and volume should be very slight, like when you puff your cheeks.
Use only enough air to make the chest rise. Watch the motion of the chest wall with each breath to see if air is getting in and out.   After ventilation, check for pulse. A child’s circulation is checked by gently tapping the carotid (artery in the neck) pulse. an infant’s circulation is checked through the pulse in the upper arm.
First locate the pion halfway between the infant’s elbow and shoulder.
Place the tips of your index and middle fingers at this point and your thumb on side of the arm. Then press your index and middle fingers toward the bone to feel the pulse.do not exert too much pressure, doing so may cause the artery to collapse, stopping the circulation in the lower arm.
Perform CPR
“If there is no pulse, begin performing ventilation and chest compression. Make sure the patient is lying on a firm surface.”
If there is no pulse, begin performing ventilation and chest compression. Make sure the patient is lying on a firm surface.

The correct area of compression in an infant is one finger below in the imaginary line between the left nipple and breast stone. Use the flat part of your middle and ring fingers to compress this area to a depth of the one- half to one inch at a rate of 100 times per minute.
The correct area of compressions in an infant is one finger below an imaginary line between the left nipple and breastbone.
CPRUse the flat part of your middle and ring fingers to compress this area to depth of one half to one inch at a rate of 100 times per minute.
The correct area of compression in a child more than one year old is the lower half of the breastbone.
The chest is compressed with one hand (keep your fingers off the ribs) to depth of the one to one and – half inches at a rate of 80 to 100 compressions per minute. The chest should be allowed to return to resting position after each compression, the head should not be lifted and the length of the time for each compression and relaxation should be equal.
Ventilation should be performed after every five compressions.
If the patient is a child above eight years old, the CPR method for adults is performed.
How do you know if the CPR is successful/ each time the breastbone is compressed, you should feel a pulse (it will feel like a flutter) in the carotid artery. The lungs will expand, his pupils will react, his normal heartbeat will return, and he will make a spontaneous gasp for breathing and try to swallow, his skin color will also improve (or return to normal) and he will be able to  move his arms or legs on his own.
Performing CPR successfully does not mean the patient may be declared out of danger. It is best to take the patient to a hospital at once.

Source : http://medicalobserverph.com/how-to-do-cpr-in-infants-and-children/
http://medicalobserverph.com/how-to-do-cpr-in-infants-and-children/ 

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